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Department of Nephrology
The department of nephrology at AINU is supported by accomplished, experienced nephrologists who perform Kidney biopsy, SLED, Plasmapheresis, Hemodiafiltration. We perform Kidney transplants also. AINU offers Hemodialysis and Plasma Dialysis (Plasmapheresis). We have catheterization laboratories.
The key conditions in a patient with a nephro disorder are
Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD)
Acute Kidney Failure
Anemia of Kidney Diseasesy
Diabetic Kidney Diseases
It is also known as Chronic Renal Disease. This occurs over a period of month or years, with symptoms like feeling generally unwell, loss of appetite. People with high blood pressure, diabetes and a bloodline relative with CKD when screened may be found infected with this disease. CKD can be identified by a blood test for creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle metabolism). The higher the creatinine values, the lower glomerular filtration rate and as a result the capacity of the kidney reduces to filter the waste products. There are five stages in this disorder according to international standards, based on glomerular filtration rate and protein level in urine. Screening is important because treatments do exist, that delay CKD.
The important symptoms are:
Increased blood pressure due to overload of fluids.
Accumulation of urea in urine.
Potassium accumulates in blood resulting in hyperkalemia.
Symptoms related to fluid overload may range from mild edema to pulmonary edema.
The kidneys function is to filter the body fluids especially blood. If this ability of the kidney suddenly fails we call it Acute Kidney Failure. During this period the fluid levels in the body may rise to dangerous levels. It may develop over a few hours or few days. It is most common in people who are already hospitalized and are in need of intensive care. The important symptoms are:
Decreased urine output, though it might be normal at times.
Swelling in legs, ankles or feet due to retention of fluids.
Drowsiness, fatigue, shortness in breath and Nausea.
Chest pain or pressure.
In some cases it may result in coma or seizures.
This failure may also be found in a person, while being diagnosed for other ailments.
Anemia in kidney occurs when the levels of EPO (erythropoietin), a hormone produced by healthy kidneys, drops. EPO indicates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells, which carry oxygen to the body through the blood. The common symptoms are:
You look pale.
You feel tired.
You have poor appetite and less sleep.
Not enough energy for your daily chores.
You are short of breath or depressed.
It is most common, if you are diabetic. This disease is most common in African-American/Black.
As a result of diabetes, a person’s small blood vessels are injured. The glomeruli, filters of the kidneys are damaged. Due to this high volume proteins are released into the urine. The body will retain more amount of water and salt than normally required. It is commonly called as Diabetic Nephropathy. Raised levels of albumin in the urine are the first sign. Albumin is the main protein that leaks out of a damaged kidney. The disease is divided into:
Micro albuminuria, here the albumin leak is about 30 to 300 mg per day. This is sometimes called as incipient nephropathy.
Proteinuria, here the albumin leak is more than 300 mg per day. It is also called as macro albuminuria or overt nephropathy.
Dry, itchy skin.
Cramps in the muscles and puffiness around the eyes.
Needing to pass urine more often than normal.
This also commonly called as Glomerulonephritis. Tiny filters called glomeruli in the kidneys, remove electrolytes, toxins and waste from the blood and excrete them through urine. It might be a sudden attack of inflammation or chronic which comes on gradually. If this occurs on its own it is primary glomerulonephritis or secondary glomerulonephritis when occurred with either diabetes or lupus.
The common symptoms are:
Pink or cola colored urine due to the presence of blood in the stream.
Anemia or kidney failure.
Swelling in face, feet, hands and abdomen.
Foamy urine due to protein content in excess.
This is mainly due to the presence of blood cells in urine tract. In most cases it is benign. In other cases, it might be due to strenuous workouts, kidney disorder, medications in cancer patients, alport syndrome ( a of cancerdisease in glomeruli) or an enlarged prostate. If at any time you see blood in urine immediately see a doctor. Prevention is always better than cure!!
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: It is a result of the abnormal destruction of red blood cells. These cells damage the filtering system of the kidneys which results in kidney failure. It mostly affects children during diarrhea. The common symptoms are:
Low platelet count.
Anemia, edema, fatigue.
Renal Cell Carcinoma:
This is a type of cancer in kidneys. It occurs due to the presence of malignant cells in the linings of tubules of the kidneys. It is common in adults. Identified when blood is present in the urine, flank pain, i.e., pain between the ribs and hips, and abdominal mass due to large bloating. This disease occurs due to our lifestyle: smoking, diabetes, hypertension and obesity.