Genitourinary fistula are the most common complication of
gynecological & obstetric procedures. Its incidence is 1-3 per 1000 deliveries. It is
more commoner in females with early-age pregnancy, cephalopelvic disproportion and poor
antenatal care, obstructed labour
Hysterectomy also has bladder injuries (2.9%), ureteric injuries
(1.8%) and followed by fistula formation. Pelvic malignancy, pelvic irradiation, trauma,
and foreign body erosions are other common factors.
esicovaginal fistulas are more common, followed by ureterovaginal
fistula, vesicouterine fistulas.