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Bladder Cancer

Overview

TURBT: Endoscopic resection of bladder tumors or laser fulguration of tiny lesions
Robotic or open Radical cystectomy: Removal of cancerous bladder and surrounding lymph nodes. Urine diversion is done by an ileal conduit (urine tubes or ureters are attached to a segment of the small intestine and this is brought out through the tummy wall as stoma to which a urine bag is applied). In selected patients neobladder can be created where the intestinal segment is used to create a reservoir similar to urinary bladder, facilitating urine passage naturally.

Risk Factors

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to benzidine and beta-naphthylamine typically found in the dye industry
  • Aging
  • Gender (More in men)
  • Bladder infection
  • Birth defects in bladder
  • Family history
  • Arsenic traces in drinking water
  • Low fluid consumption

Symptoms

  • Blood in urine
  • Urge to empty the bladder
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Strain while urinating
  • Pain while emptying the bladder
  • Lower back pain

Diagnosis

  • Bladder biopsy
  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • MRI Scan

Treatment Options

  • Transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT)
  • Cystectomy and lymph node dissection
  • Urinary diversion