Diabetes is the most silent and devastating health issue which, if neglected can lead to many long-term complications like Diabetic nephropathy (affecting kidneys), cardiovascular diseases affecting the heart, Diabetic retinopathy (affecting the eyes), Diabetic neuropathy (affecting the nervous system) etc.
Among the diabetic complications, Kidney disease is a major complication as it can lead to end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation.
The main job of the kidneys is to filter wastes and extra water out of the blood to make urine. Kidneys also help control blood pressure and produce hormones that your body needs to stay healthy.
Kidneys have minute blood vessels that aid in filtering the blood. High blood sugar levels can make these vessels to become narrow and clogged leading to decreased filtration capacity, causing the excretion of albumin (a type of protein) through urine. If diabetes is uncontrolled for prolonged periods, it leads to high blood pressure, which can further damage the kidneys.
Loss of protein in the urine is one of the foremost symptoms of kidney disease. If the corrective measures are not taken at this stage, it can progress over the few years leading to an irreversible damage to the kidneys.
- High blood pressure
- Protein in the urine
- Ankle/Leg swelling
- Excessive urination, especially during the night-time
- Urinalysis (test to detect the presence of protein in urine)
- Complete Urine Examination (CUE)
- Serum Creatinine
- Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)
- Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio
- Control on Diabetes, Blood pressure, Cholesterol levels
- Avoiding High protein diet and strict adherence to Diet chart
- Regular screening for diabetic nephropathy
- Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, weight control, avoiding consumption of alcohol, and adequate exercise
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