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What are the early signs of kidney disease in patients with diabetes?

The earliest sign of diabetic kidney disease is an increased excretion of albumin in the urine. This is present long before the usual tests done in your doctor’s office show evidence of kidney disease, so it is important for you to have this test on a yearly basis. Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur. You will use the bathroom more at night. Your blood pressure may get too high. As a person with diabetes, you should have your blood, urine and blood pressure checked at least once a year. This will lead to better control of your disease and early treatment of high blood pressure and kidney disease. Maintaining control of your diabetes can lower your risk of developing severe kidney disease.

What are the late signs of kidney disease in patients with diabetes?

As your kidneys fail, your blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels will rise as well as the level of creatinine in your blood. You may also experience nausea, vomiting, a loss of appetite, weakness, increasing fatigue, itching, muscle cramps (especially in your legs) and anemia (a low blood count). You may find you need less insulin. This is because diseased kidneys cause less breakdown of insulin. If you develop any of these signs, call your doctor.

Signs of Kidney Disease in Patients with Diabetes

 

  • Albumin/protein in the urine
  • High blood pressure
  • Ankle and leg swelling, leg cramps
  • Going to the bathroom more often at night
  • High levels of BUN and creatinine in blood
  • Less need for insulin or antidiabetic medications
  • Morning sickness, nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness, paleness and anemia
  • Itching

How is kidney failure treated in diabetic patients?

Three types of treatment can be used once your kidneys have failed: kidney transplantation, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Can a patient with diabetes have a kidney transplant?

Yes. Once you get a new kidney, you may need a higher dose of insulin. Your appetite will improve so your new kidney will break down insulin better than your injured one. You will use steroids to keep your body from rejecting your new kidney. If your new kidney fails, dialysis treatment can be started while you wait for another kidney.

How are cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney disease related?

People with CKD have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mostly due to problems with the blood vessels. Most patients with CKD die as a result of cardiovascular complications rather than progress to ESRD.
Risks that are often associated with kidney disease are also associated with atherosclerosis and contribute to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and stroke.
• High blood pressure (hypertension)
• Diabetes
• High LDL (“bad”) cholesterol
• Low HDL (“good”) cholesterol
• Smoking
• Lack of physical Activity
• Older age

What are different types of kidney failures?

Acute Prerenal Kidney Failure

Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can cause acute prerenal kidney failure. The kidneys can’t filter toxins from the blood without enough blood flow. This type of kidney failure can usually be cured once the cause of the decreased blood flow is determined.

Acute Intrinsic Kidney Failure

Acute intrinsic kidney failure can be caused by direct trauma to the kidneys, such as physical impact or an accident. Causes also include toxic overload and ischemia, which is a lack of oxygen to the kidneys.

Ischemia may be caused by:
•severe bleeding
•shock
•renal blood vessel obstruction
•glomerulonephritis, which is an inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys

Chronic Prerenal Kidney Failure

When there isn’t enough blood flowing to the kidneys for an extended period of time, the kidneys begin to shrink and lose the ability to function.

Chronic Intrinsic Kidney Failure

This happens when there is long-term damage to the kidneys due to intrinsic kidney disease. Intrinsic kidney disease is caused by a direct trauma to the kidneys, such as severe bleeding or a lack of oxygen.

Chronic Post-Renal Kidney Failure

A long-term blockage of the urinary tract prevents urination, which causes pressure and eventual kidney damage.

What are the Symptoms and Complications of Kidney diseases?

The symptoms of kidney disease depend on the type of disease that a person has. If the disease is caused by a bacterial infection, the person will develop a high fever. Other signs of kidney disease include passing too much or too little urine or passing blood or abnormal levels of chemicals in the urine. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a kidney disease in which the kidneys cannot remove enough water from the urine to make it concentrated.

Symptoms

Mild–to–moderate kidney disease often does not have any symptoms. However, in ERSD or uremia, when the toxins accumulate in a person’s blood, symptoms may include:
• puffy eyes, hands, and feet (called edema)
• high blood pressure
• fatigue
• shortness of breath
• loss of appetite
• nausea and vomiting
• thirst
• a bad taste in the mouth or bad breath

What are the common causes of kidney disease?

The most common causes of kidney disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, and hardening of the arteries (which damage`s the blood vessels in the kidney). Some kidney diseases are caused by an inflammation of the kidneys, called nephritis. This may be due to an infection or to an autoimmune reaction where the body’s immune or defense system attacks and damages the kidneys. Some kidney diseases, such as polycystic kidney disease are caused by problems with the shape or size of the kidneys (anatomic disorders), while other kidney diseases interfere with the inner workings of the kidneys (metabolic disorders). Most metabolic kidney disorders are rare, since they need to be inherited from both parents.

Other common causes of kidney failure include certain medications that can be toxic to kidney tissue and blockages of the system that drains the kidneys (which can occur with prostate problems).

What are the treatment available for Kidney Failure?

There are several treatments for kidney failure, but the type of treatment needed will vary depending on the reason for your kidney failure. Your doctor can help you determine the best treatment option, which may include:

Dialysis

Dialysis filters and purifies the blood using a machine. It performs the function of the kidneys. Depending on the type of dialysis, you may be connected to a large machine or a portable catheter bag. A low-potassium, low-salt diet is often prescribed along with dialysis. Dialysis doesn’t cure kidney failure, but it will extend your life if you go to regularly scheduled treatments.

Kidney Transplant

Another treatment option is a kidney transplant, but there’s usually a long wait to receive a donor kidney that’s compatible with your body. The advantages to a transplant are that the new kidney can work perfectly, and dialysis is no longer required. The disadvantage is that immunosuppressive drugs must be taken after the surgery. These drugs have their own side effects, some of which are serious. Also, transplant surgery may fail and may even be life-threatening.

• weight loss
• generalized, persistent itchy skin
• muscle twitching or cramping
• a yellowish-brown tint to the skin
• urine that is cloudy or tea-colored

Kidney disease usually does not cause pain, but in some cases pain may occur. A kidney stone in the ureter (a tube leading from the kidney to the bladder) can cause severe cramping pain that spreads from the lower back into the groin. The pain disappears once the stone has moved through the ureter.

Can kidney problems make you gain weight?

Unexplained rapid weight gain may be caused by fluid retention. Fluid retention is also referred to as edema. It causes your limbs, hands, feet, face, or abdomen to look swollen. People with heart failure, kidney failure, or those taking certain medications may experience this type of weight gain.

How long will the transplanted kidney work?

On average, a kidney transplant lasts between eight and 15 years. But some transplants last only a few weeks and some last 20 years. In general, kidneys from living donors last longer than those from cadaveric (deceased) donors.

What is dialysis?

Dialysis is the procedure for artificially replacing many functions performed by normal kidneys. It is necessary to replace kidney function when kidneys are no longer able to keep people healthy and safe. There are two common types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

What happens if a person stops dialysis treatment?

If a patient want to stop dialysis treatment, it is important that he speaks with his health care team and loved ones beforehand. When treatment is stopped, toxic wastes and fluid buildup in the body, making the person feel tired. Breathing becomes difficult. A physician can prescribe medicine to make breathing easier. The length of time someone continues to live depends on his condition. He may live a week, he may go on to live for months. It depends on the amount of kidney function he has left and his overall medical condition.

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